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Why is the 321 stainless steel plate magnetic after being processed into a product?

by:Topson     2022-06-01
Austenite is non-magnetic or weakly magnetic, while martensite or ferrite is magnetic. Due to component segregation or improper heat treatment during smelting, a small amount of martensite or ferrite structure in austenitic 304 stainless steel will result. In this way, 304 stainless steel will have weak magnetism.
In addition, after cold working of 304 stainless steel, the microstructure will also be transformed to martensite. The greater the cold working deformation, the more martensite transformation, and the greater the magnetic properties of the steel. The stable austenite structure can be restored by high temperature solution treatment, thereby eliminating magnetism.
The parts of stainless steel that are not magnetically conductive are easily magnetized after cold deformation. It is generally believed that the reason is that after cold deformation of stainless steel, the connection mode between the original molecules of various elements changes and the magnetic conductivity is changed.
Stainless steel changes from non-magnetic to magnetically conductive after cold deformation, its composition does not change, and its corrosion resistance does not change significantly. The hardness and tensile strength increase, and the elongation decreases. No significant adverse consequences.
Stainless steel parts generally do not need to be treated due to magnetic permeability due to processing. If it must be treated, only do 'solid solution treatment': heat the stainless steel part to 600-800 degrees Celsius in an electric furnace and cool it. Recoverable non-magnetic. The mechanism is molecular rearrangement at high temperature.
Solid solution treatment not only makes the stainless steel non-magnetic, but also eliminates the residual stress inside the workpiece to the maximum extent, so that the tendency of the workpiece to crack is reduced. However, solution treatment will tarnish the surface of the workpiece due to oxidation, and the cost of re-polishing is not low.
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